Title: Immunological and clinical evaluation of Triticum aestivum aeroallergens in asthmatic patients
Background: Extensive research has been conducted on wheat as food allergen probably due to high meal dependence of world population on wheat, but less research is conducted on wheat acted as aeroallergen.
Methods: To characterize the protein fractions in wheat flou r, responsible for aero - allergy in the asthmatic patients, twelve out of forty - five asthmatic patients were screened. These patients were sensitive to wheat and suspected of having wheat aero - allergy by their clinical allergic history, positive skin prick test and enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Total level of protein in water salt soluble wheat extract was estimated through Lowry’s method. Sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS - PAGE) was used for the separation of prote in fractions in wheat and immunoblotting assay was carried out to target the protein fractions responsible for aero - allergy in screened asthmatic patients .
Results: It was estimated that most patients showed symptoms of shortness of breath, episodic sneezing, wheezing and hyper secretion of mucus. Eight patients showed greater than 3 mm Skin Prick Test (SPT) score to wheat allergen. Immunoblotting results demonstrated that three asthmatic patients were allergic to wheat protein fractions of molecular weight of 12 kDa and five were allergic to protein fractions wi th 12 to 15 kDa.
Conclusion: Water salt soluble wheat protein fractions present in - between 10 and 15 kDa was found to be responsible for aero - allergy in screened asthmatic subjects. Alpha amylase/trypsin or thioredoxin h protein fractions might be involv ed in inducing hypersensitivity in the Patients.
Keywords: Aeroallergen; Asthma; Immunoblotting; Protein; Skin prick test; Wheat